The Mediterranean diet has many health benefits, and olives and olive oil are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Studies have shown that olive polyphenols in olives and olive oil have super antioxidant properties, which is the main reason for their health benefits. Hydroxytyrosol is the most important component of olive polyphenols, a natural polyphenolic compound, with a content of up to 60-80% in esters, mainly in the form of esters in the fruit and leaves of olive. It is the strongest natural antioxidant discovered so far, and has a variety of biological and pharmacological activities.
Hydroxytyrosol (HT), whose chemical name is 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethanol and molecular formula is C8H10O3, is a polyphenolic compound present in the form of esterification in the fruit and branches of Olea Europaea L. It has strong antioxidant activity. It is found mainly in the form of esters in the fruit and branches of olives.
1. Antioxidant: Because of its special catechol structure, it has excellent antioxidant performance, which is considered as one of the most powerful natural antioxidants so far. Its oxygen free radical absorption capacity value is 28000 µmol TE/g, which is 700 times of ascorbic acid (40 μmol TE/g). It scavenge free radicals, protect LDL, and is effective against UV rays. (can be used for whitening, sunscreen and anti-aging cosmetics, skin care products to promote metabolism and remove toxins)
2. Uric acid lowering: it inhibits the activity of XOD(xanthine oxidase) and regulates the transcription of related uric acid transporters at the transcriptional level. (Potential prophylactic agents for hyperuricemia)
3. Anti-cancer: inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells and promotes apoptosis. (may be used as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of cancer)
4. Anti-inflammatory: block inflammation-related pathways, reduce proinflammatory cytokines, and prevent kidney damage. (can be used to control inflammatory agents and protect kidney health products)
5. Neuroprotection: clear free radicals in the central nervous system and protect dopaminergic cells from damage. (can be used in the manufacture of adjunctive agents for the treatment of neuropathy)
6. Antibacterial: it has a wide range of antibacterial activity. (Used as natural food preservatives and antimicrobial agents)
7. Anti-obesity: reduce the production of fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol to prevent obesity and complications. (can be used for fat reducing health care products and drugs)
8. Protect retina and bone: protect human retinal cells from damage; Prevention of bone loss, prevention of osteoporosis (can be used in eye protection agents and prevention, treatment of osteoporosis agents)
9. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease: improve the lipid profile, reduce the size of atherosclerosis, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (can be used as a treatment of cardiovascular disease drugs)
Hydroxytyrosol has a broad prospect in the fields of nutritional supplements, food additives, cosmetics and medicine due to its special biological activity.