Plant extract is the carrier of modern plant medicine science and technology and the main raw material of plant medicine preparation. At present, the commonly used extraction methods of plant extracts include solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction and enzyme extraction, while supercritical fluid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction are widely used as new extraction technologies.
Solvent extraction method is to use solvent to extract effective ingredients from solid raw materials, the solvent used must have the characteristics of mutual solubility with the extracted solute. After the plant material is crushed, it can be extracted by impregnation, percolation, decocting, reflux and continuous extraction in a suitable container with several times the amount of solvent.
Ultrasonic extraction uses the strong vibration and cavitation effect produced by ultrasonic to accelerate the release and diffusion of substances in plant cells and dissolve them into the solvent, while keeping the structure and biological activity of extracted substances unchanged. The principle of ultrasonic extraction is mainly physical process, which is a new extraction method that has been paid more and more attention in recent years. Compared with conventional solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction can greatly shorten the extraction time, consume less solvent, and have higher extraction rate, so it has higher extraction efficiency.
Supercritical fluid extraction
Supercriticalfluid extraction (SFE) is a new extraction and separation technology, generally using CO2 as the extraction agent. Principle of supercritical fluid extraction method is the use of supercritical fluid characteristic dissolving capacity and material solubility in the supercritical fluid is very sensitive to the change of pressure and temperature characteristics, through heating decompression means (or both) will be dissolved substances in supercritical fluid, achieve the purpose of separation, purification, it has both rectification and extraction of two kinds of function, With the advantages of active ingredients not easy to deactivate, high product quality, synchronous extraction and separation process, it is considered as a green and high-tech separation technology, especially suitable for the separation and refining of unstable natural products and physiological active substances.
Microwave assisted extraction method
Microwave assisted extraction technology (microwave assistedextraction, MAE) is the use of microwave can improve the efficiency of extraction of a kind of new technology. Microwave-assisted extraction is a method of selective extraction of target components from materials by using the characteristics of microwave heating. By adjusting the parameters of microwave, the target components can be heated effectively, which is conducive to the extraction and separation of target components. The principle of microwave assisted extraction method to extract plant the plant samples to absorb a lot of energy in the microwave field, whereas the surrounding solvent absorption is less, so as to produce thermal stress inside the cells, plant cells because of the internal thermal stress and fracture, the intracellular substances directly contact with relatively cold extraction solvent, thus accelerating the target product by cells transferred to extract solvents, Thus enhancing the extraction process. Microwave-assisted extraction, in principle, uses thermal energy like soaking and filtering, but extracts can be extracted much faster than traditional methods, reducing extraction time while avoiding the destruction and degradation of valuable plant extracts.
Microwave ultrasonic co-extraction method
Microwave is a kind of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, the radiation polar molecules in the microwave electromagnetic field fast turning and directional arrangement, resulting in a tear and mutual friction cause fever, this can ensure that the rapid transfer and make full use of energy, has the advantages of energy saving no industrial pollution, but the microwave penetration depth is limited (and its wavelength) in the same order of magnitude, The function of mass transfer was not obvious in the process of enhanced extraction. Ultrasonic wave is a kind of high frequency mechanical wave, which has turbulence effect, perturbation effect, interface effect and energy accumulation effect, but the thermal effect produced by ultrasonic wave is not obvious, and is limited to a very small range around cavitation bubble. Combining them together, the synergistic effect is beneficial to the release of broken wall components, that is, a cheap and pollution-free extraction method of bioactive substances can be obtained through the microwave-ultrasonic synergistic enhanced extraction technology.
The cell wall of natural plants is made up of cellulose, and the active components of plants are often wrapped in the cell wall. Enzyme extraction method is a method of using cellulase pectinase protease (mainly cellulase) to destroy the cell wall of plants, so as to promote the maximum dissolution of plant effective components. In the extraction process of enzyme extraction, the selection of enzyme, enzyme concentration, pH value, enzymolysis temperature and enzymolysis time all affect the extraction rate of plant extracts.
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